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AKO (Antiaris toxicaria)

Trade Name

Ako

Scientific Name

Antiaris toxicaria Lesch.

Family

MORACEAE

Common Names

Oro (Nigeria); Ogiovu (Nigeria); Kyenkyen (Ghana); Chenchen (Ghana); Ako (Côte d`Ivoire); Akede (Côte d`Ivoire); Antiaris (United Kingdom); Antiaris (Germany); Bonkonko (Zaire); Bonkongo (Zaire); Mumaka (Uganda); Kirundu (Uganda); Mlulu (Tanzania); Mkuzu (Tanzania); Sansama (Angola); Kirundu (Angola); Upas tree; Antiaris (Papua New Guinea); Kamansi (Papua New Guinea); Upas (India); Terap (Malaysia); Nong-nong (Laos); Caay sui (Vietnam); Kapiak (Papua New Guinea); Upas (Philippines); Upas (Indonesia); Ancar (Indonesia); Tatai (Indonesia); Ipoh (Malaysia); Tasem (Sarawak); Aseik (Myanmar); Yuan (Thailand); Yang nong (Thailand)

Scientific Name Synonyms

Antiaris welwitschii Engl.; Antiaris macrophylla R. Br.; Antiaris africana Engl.; Ambora toxicaria Pers.

Description Of The Tree

Botanical Description

The tree reaches a height of 40 to 50 m, with a straight, cylindrical bole clear to 23 m in length. Trunk diameter attains from 70 up to 170 cm and is sometimes buttressed.

Natural Habitat

Antiaris toxicaria is found in primary forests and grass savanna forests.

Natural Distribution

Distributed throughout the primary forest zone of West, Central and East Africa on widely varying sites.

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Wood Identification

Anatomic Description Of Wood

Wood diffuse porous. Occasionally vessels exclusively solitary (over 90%). Tangential diameter of vessel lumina 150 to 200 micras (medium). Tyloses thin walled. Non-vestured pits. Vessels per mm2 less than 6 (rare). Simple perforation plates. Vessel-ray pits sim Axial parenchyma lozenge-aliform. Occasionally prismatic crystals in non-chambered axial parenchyma cells. 5 to 8 cells per parenchyma strand. 4 to 10 rays per mm (medium). Rays non-storied. Larger rays more than 4 seriate. Body ray cells procumbent with mostly 2 to 4 rows of upright and/or square marginal cells (Kribs-II). Septate fibers present. Fibers with simple to minutely bordered pits.

  • Wood Macro Photo Tangential Plane
  • Wood Micro Photo Of Transversal Section

Availability

Cites Status

Unrestricted

General Wood Description

Color

The heartwood is white to light yellowish white, it is not demarcated. The silver figure is barely visible.

COLOR INDEX (1=Black, 7=Light yellow,white)

7

Grain

It has highly interlocked grain; special care is needed when drying because of frequent risks of distortion.

Texture

The texture is typically medium to coarse.

Luster

The wood luster is reported to be rather low.

Natural Durability

Not durable; important risks of decay attacks at any processing step, from logs up to final products. It must receive preservative treatment. Sensible to termites attack. Heartwood is sensible to Lyctus attacks.

Natural durability index (1= Very high durability, 7=Vey low durability)

5

Internal Growth Stresses

Residual stresses are reported to be absent.

Silica Content

Silica Content: This timber is reported to have a negligible silica content. Silica contents over 0.05% may affect wood processing. Silica Value: 0.02

Resistance To Impregnation

Easy to treat with a full penetration of the preservative products using vacuum-pressure method.

Wood Physical Properties

Basic Density or Specific Gravity (O.D. weight/vol. green) (g/cm³)

0.43

Air-dry Density (Weight and volume at 12%MC) (g/cm³)

0.47

Total shrinkage Tangential (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)

6.9

Total shrinkage Radial (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)

4.1

Drying Defects

Ease of Drying: Air seasoning is rapid. Boards 25 mm thick take about 3 months to air dry. Drying Defects: Risk of cupping, shakes tend to open and knots split slightly. Kiln Schedules: Schedule recommended for Black Wattle. The timber kiln dries rapidly but marked collapse may occur in early stages of seasoning. This can be remedied by reconditioning.

Recommended Dry Kiln Schedule

FR-10

Dimensional stability ratio (Total Tangential Shrinkage %/Total Radial Shrinkage %)

1.7

Wood Chemical Properties

Wood Mechanical Properties

Compression parallel to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)

363

Compression perpendicular to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)

40

Shear strength radial 12%MC (kgf/cm²)

56

Janka hardness (side) 12%MC (kgf)

263

Janka hardness (end grain) 12%MC (kgf)

362

Workability

Sawing

It is easy to saw.

Rotary Veneer Cutting

Suitable for slicing, also suitable for peeling if treated.

Sliced Veneer

Suitable for slicing, also suitable for peeling if treated.

Blunting Effect

Slight blunting effect; ordinary tools can be used for sawing and machining.

Machining

Machining of this species is reportedly easy.

Planing

Easy; no particular problems.

Moulding

Moderately easy; tools must be cautiously sharpened.

Boring

Moderately easy; tools must be cautiously sharpened.

Mortising

Moderately easy; tools must be cautiously sharpened.

Nailing

No particular problem.

Gluing

Glues well if basic gluing technical rules are followed.

Sanding

Easy to perform; it gives good results.

Polishing

Needs pre-coating.

Steam Bending

Steam bending is difficult.

Response To Hand Tools

No particular problems.

REFERENCED USES

End Uses Summary

HOUSING GENERAL, boards, frames, steps, panelling, fittings, FURNITURE AND CABINETS, common furniture, PLYWOOD AND VENEER, faces, Decorative veneer, PACKING, heavy packing, pallets, OTHER AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, handicrafts, door core, coffin, moldings, cementboard

General Housing
  • 10 - Silica in Timbers
Boards
  • 13 - Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods. Temperate and tropical. Section III. Latin American (Mexico, Central, and South America) Woods–Conventional Temperatures
Frames
  • 16 - Woods of the World
Steps
  • 17 - Tree Conservation Database
Paneling
  • 18 - W3TROPICOS Missouri Botanical Garden
Fittings
  • 19 - Silica in Timbers
Furniture Cabinets
  • 21 - Tropical timbers of the world. Part III-Southeast Asian and Oceanian Species.
Furniture, Common
  • 23 - Handbook of Hardwoods
Panels, Veneers
  • 25 - Directory of Timber Trade Malaysia
Faces
  • 26 - Annual Review and Assessment of the World Timber Situation 1998-ITTO
Decorative veneer
  • 28 - Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forest of Fiji
Packing
  • 45 - Recopilación y Análisis de Estudios Tecnológicos de Maderas Peruanas
Heavy Packing
  • 47 - Arvores Brasileiras
Pallets
  • 48 - The strength properties of timbers
Handcraft
  • 66 - Maderas latinoamericanas. VII. Caracteristicas anatomicas. propiedades fisicomecanicas, de secado, y tratabilidad de la madera juvenil de Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav. Oken.)
Door Cores
  • 76 - Descripción General y Anatómica de 105 Maderas del Grupo Andino.
Coffin
  • 78 - Amazonian Timbers for the International Market
Molding
  • 79 - Padronização da Nomenclatura Comercial Brasileira das Madeiras Tropicais Amazônicas, Sugestão
Cementboard
  • 81 - Madeiras da Amazônia: descrição do lenho de 40 espécies ocorrentes na Floresta Nacional do Tapajós

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