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AGOHO (Casuarina equisetifolia)

Trade Name

Agoho

Scientific Name

Casuarina equisetifolia Forst.

Family

CASUARINACEAE

Common Names

Pink-tinyu (Myanmar); She oak (Australia); Ru laut (Sarawak); Aro (Philippines); Aru (Indonesia); Pek nam (Laos); Son tha le (Laos); Son thale (Thailand); Ku (Thailand); Agoso (Philippines); Ru (Malaysia); Aru (Malaysia); Ai samara (Indonesia); Cemara laut (Indonesia); Filao (France); Whistling pine; Caay Phi lao (Vietnam); Agoho (Philippines); Coast she-oak

Scientific Name Synonyms

Casuarina muricata Roxb; Casuarina litorea L.

Description Of The Tree

Botanical Description

It is a monoecious tree up to 40 m tall and 100 cm in diameter. The bole is straight, cylindrical, usually fluted towards the base.

Natural Distribution

It is distributed in Malay Peninsula, Myanmar, Australia, Philippines, and islands of the Pacific.

Plantations Available?

It is widely cultivated throughout the tropics. It is particularly favored along seashores.

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Wood Identification

Anatomic Description Of Wood

Wood diffuse porous. Vessels in diagonal and/or radial pattern. Vessels exclusively solitary (over 90%). Occasionally tangential diameter of vessel lumina 100 micras or less. Colored deposits in heartwood vessels. Occasionally vessels per mm2 less than 6. Occas Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse and/or diffuse in aggregates. Occasionally prismatic crystals in chambered axial parenchyma cells and/or in fibers. 5 to 8 cells per parenchyma strand. Over 9 cells per parenchyma strand. Axial parenchyma in narrow bands o 4 to 10 rays per mm (medium). Rays more than 10 per mm (abundant). Rays of two distinct sizes. Ray height more than 1 mm. Occasionally larger rays more than 4 seriate. Larger rays more than 4 seriate. Occasionally aggregated rays. Prismatic crystals in radial al Fibers very thick walled. Fibers with distinctly bordered pits.

  • Wood Macro Photo Tangential Plane
  • Wood Micro Photo Of Transversal Section

Availability

Cites Status

Unrestricted

General Wood Description

Odor

It has no taste or odor.

Color

The sapwood is slightly paler than heartwood, which ranges in color from pinkish-brown to chocolate brown.

COLOR INDEX (1=Black, 7=Light yellow,white)

5

Grain

The grain is straight or shallowly interlocked.

Texture

The wood is reported to be frequently medium textured.

Natural Durability

It is durable when exposed to weather, but must be treated for use in contact with ground.

Natural durability index (1= Very high durability, 7=Vey low durability)

3

Silica Content

Silica Content: Non-siliceous. Silica Value: 0

Resistance To Impregnation

The sapwood treats readily. The heartwood is extremely resistant to impregnation.

Wood Physical Properties

Basic Density or Specific Gravity (O.D. weight/vol. green) (g/cm³)

0.88

Air-dry Density (Weight and volume at 12%MC) (g/cm³)

1.02

Total shrinkage Tangential (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)

11.7

Total shrinkage Radial (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)

6.4

Drying Defects

Ease of Drying: The timber is expected to dry slowly but with only slight seasoning defects.

Recommended Dry Kiln Schedule

UK-A; US-T2-C2

Dimensional stability ratio (Total Tangential Shrinkage %/Total Radial Shrinkage %)

1.8

Wood Chemical Properties

Wood Mechanical Properties

Compression parallel to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)

846

Compression perpendicular to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)

224

Shear strength radial 12%MC (kgf/cm²)

194

Janka hardness (side) 12%MC (kgf)

1591

Janka hardness (end grain) 12%MC (kgf)

1499

Workability

Rotary Veneer Cutting

Stock is reported to be too hard for plywood production.

Sliced Veneer

Stock is reported to be too hard for plywood production.

Machining

When dry it is difficult to work with machine tools because of its high density and hardness.

Planing

Some chipping may occur in quarter sawn faces.

Moulding

This species is difficult to mold.

Boring

This species is easy to bore.

Mortising

This species is easy to mortise.

Finishing

Wood of this species gives a smooth finish.

Response To Hand Tools

When dry it is difficult to work with hand tools because of its high density and hardness.

REFERENCED USES

End Uses Summary

EXTERIOR GENERAL, poles, stakes posts, crossties, HOUSING GENERAL, beams, joists, flooring, SPORTS, TOOLS, tool handles, agricultural tools, CONTAINERS, truck bodies, truck flooring, NAVAL CONSTRUCTION, boat oars, port pillar, OTHER AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, shingle

Exterior General
  • 1 - Tabela de resultados de ensaios fisicos e mecanicos
Poles
  • 3 - Estudo dendrologico e determinacao das caracteristicas fisicas e mecanicas do genipapo (Genipa americana)
Stake Posts
  • 5 - Propriedades fisicas e mecanicas da madeira e do contraplacado de Pinus elliottii
Crossties
  • 8 - Maderas latinoamericas. III, Podocarpus standleyi ,Podocarpus oleifolius, Drims granadensis, Magnolia poasana y Didymopanax pittieri
General Housing
  • 10 - Silica in Timbers
Beams
  • 11 - Prospect: The wood database
Joists
  • 12 - Tropical timbers of the world. Part I-Tropical American Species
Flooring
  • 14 - Handbook of Hardwoods
Sports
  • 38 - Annual Review and Assessment of the World Timber Situation 1998-ITTO
Tools
  • 42 - Utilización Industrial de Nuevas Especies Forestales en el Perú.
Tool Handles
  • 43 - Maderas de Bolivia (Características y Usos de 55 Maderas Tropicales)
Agricultural Tools
  • 44 - Atlas of Peruvian Woods
Truck Body
  • 53 - Timbers of the New World
Truck Flooring
  • 54 - Bulletin of the Government Forest Experiment Station N.157: Identification of Tropical Woods
Shipbuilding
  • 55 - Tropical Timber Atlas of Latin America
Boat Oars
  • 60 - Amazonian Timbers, Characteristics and Utilization Volume II; Curuá-Una Experimental Forest Station
Port Pillar
  • 61 - Manual de Diseño para Maderas del Grupo Andino
Shingles
  • 77 - Amazonian Timbers, Characteristics and Utilization Volume I; Tapajós National Forest

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