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AFINA (Strombosia grandifolia)

Trade Name

Afina

Scientific Name

Strombosia grandifolia Hook.f.

Family

OLACACEAE

Common Names

Itako (Nigeria); Afina (Ghana); Poé (Côte d`Ivoire)

Scientific Name Synonyms

Lavalleopsis grandifolia (Hook. f.) Tiegh. ex Engl.; Lavalleopsis grandifolia (Hook. f.) Tiegh. ex Engl

Description Of The Tree

Botanical Description

The tree reaches a height of 8 to 26 m. The bole may be straight or twisted. The trunk diameter attains 50 to 70 cm.

Natural Habitat

Strombosia grandifolia occurs mainly in dense, closed rain forests, forming the dominant portion of the population. Less common in swampy or partially inundated areas.

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Wood Identification

Anatomic Description Of Wood

Wood diffuse porous. Vessels in radial multiples of 2 to 4. Tangential diameter of vessel lumina 100 micras or less (very small). Non-vestured pits. Vessels per mm2 more than 20 (very abundant). Scalariform perforation plates with more than 15 bars. Vessel-ray Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse and/or diffuse in aggregates. Prismatic crystals in chambered axial parenchyma cells and/or in fibers. Over 9 cells per parenchyma strand. Rays more than 10 per mm (abundant). Rays non-storied. Rays 1 to 4 seriate. Prismatic crystals in radial alignment in procumbent ray cells (chambered cells). Prismatic crystals in the ray cells. Heterogeneous rays and/or multiseriate heterogeneous rays. Non-septate fibers. Fibers with simple to minutely bordered pits.

  • Wood Macro Photo Tangential Plane
  • Wood Micro Photo Of Transversal Section

Availability

Cites Status

Unrestricted

General Wood Description

Color

The heartwood is brown-red with purple shading, darkening further with age, it is not clearly demarcated. Darker stripes on radial sections.

COLOR INDEX (1=Black, 7=Light yellow,white)

3

Grain

Straight; grain has no particular influence on drying, machining and finishing qualities.

Texture

The wood is typically fine in texture.

Luster

Luster is reported to be moderate.

Natural Durability

Durable to decay; this species can be utilized without preservative treatment for exterior joinery or similar uses. Resistant to termites attack.

Natural durability index (1= Very high durability, 7=Vey low durability)

1

Internal Growth Stresses

Residual stresses are reported to be absent.

Silica Content

Silica Content: Negligible contents of silica are found in timber of this species. Amounts over 0.05% may affect the wood processing. Silica Value: 0.01

Resistance To Impregnation

Nearly impossible to treat with a too much low penetration of the preservative substances.

Wood Physical Properties

Basic Density or Specific Gravity (O.D. weight/vol. green) (g/cm³)

0.86

Air-dry Density (Weight and volume at 12%MC) (g/cm³)

1.00

Total shrinkage Tangential (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)

9.3

Total shrinkage Radial (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)

6.3

Drying Defects

Ease of Drying: Drying is moderately easy; some particular care is needed. Drying Defects: Risks of checks, distortions and discoloration caused by decay Kiln Schedules: The kiln schedule has been tested.

Recommended Dry Kiln Schedule

FR-13

Dimensional stability ratio (Total Tangential Shrinkage %/Total Radial Shrinkage %)

1.5

Wood Chemical Properties

Wood Mechanical Properties

Compression parallel to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)

753

Compression perpendicular to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)

107

Shear strength radial 12%MC (kgf/cm²)

104

Janka hardness (side) 12%MC (kgf)

1261

Janka hardness (end grain) 12%MC (kgf)

1258

Workability

Sawing

Sawing of this species requires powerful equipment.

Rotary Veneer Cutting

Not suitable for veneering.

Sliced Veneer

Not suitable for veneering.

Blunting Effect

Moderate blunting effect; stellited blades for sawing and carbide tools for machining are advised.

Machining

It needs powerful tools for processing. Possible difficulties caused by interlocked grain are reported.

Planing

Moderately easy; tools must be cautiously sharpened.

Moulding

Easy; no particular problems.

Turning

30

Boring

Easy; no particular problems.

Mortising

Easy; no particular problems.

Nailing

Pre-boring is necessary.

Gluing

Difficult to glue because of high density.

Sanding

Easy to perform; it gives good results.

Polishing

Can be polished without surface preparation.

Response To Hand Tools

Working with hand tools is difficult.

REFERENCED USES

End Uses Summary

EXTERIOR GENERAL, poles, paling, stakes posts, piers, HOUSING GENERAL, beams, joists, FURNITURE AND CABINETS, cabinets, TURNING, PACKING, heavy packing, CONTAINERS, truck bodies, truck flooring, OTHER AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, handicrafts, axle

Exterior General
  • 1 - Tabela de resultados de ensaios fisicos e mecanicos
Poles
  • 3 - Estudo dendrologico e determinacao das caracteristicas fisicas e mecanicas do genipapo (Genipa americana)
Paling Fence Pickets
  • 4 - Estudo dendrologico e determinacao das caracteristicas fisicas e mecanicas da bicuiba
Stake Posts
  • 5 - Propriedades fisicas e mecanicas da madeira e do contraplacado de Pinus elliottii
Piers
  • 9 - Maderas latinoamericanas. IV, Nectandra sp. Ocotea austinii, Persea sp. aff. vesticula, Persea schiedeana
General Housing
  • 10 - Silica in Timbers
Beams
  • 11 - Prospect: The wood database
Joists
  • 12 - Tropical timbers of the world. Part I-Tropical American Species
Furniture Cabinets
  • 21 - Tropical timbers of the world. Part III-Southeast Asian and Oceanian Species.
Cabinet
  • 24 - Empire Timbers
Turning
  • 30 - Embassy of Honduras in Japan
Heavy Packing
  • 47 - Arvores Brasileiras
Truck Body
  • 53 - Timbers of the New World
Truck Flooring
  • 54 - Bulletin of the Government Forest Experiment Station N.157: Identification of Tropical Woods
Handcraft
  • 66 - Maderas latinoamericanas. VII. Caracteristicas anatomicas. propiedades fisicomecanicas, de secado, y tratabilidad de la madera juvenil de Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav. Oken.)
Axles
  • 73 - Handbook of Hardwoods

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