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ADJOUABA (Dacryodes klaineana)

Trade Name

Adjouaba

Scientific Name

Dacryodes klaineana H.J.Lam

Family

BURSERACEAE

Common Names

Orumu egbo (Nigeria); Adjouaba (Côte d`Ivoire); Nom ebap (Gabon); Abatom (Gabon); Nom ebap (Cameroon); Adjouaba (Cameroon); Adjouaba

Description Of The Tree

Botanical Description

The tree reaches a height of 23 to 26 m. The trunk diameter attains 70 to 130 cm. The bole has an irregular shape, with poorly developed buttresses, or wide spreading superficial roots.

Natural Habitat

Dacryodes klaineana is prevalent in deciduous, dry deciduous and fringing forests, also in high plateaus along rivers and in coastal forests.

Natural Distribution

West Africa.

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Wood Identification

Anatomic Description Of Wood

Vessels per mm2 10 to 20 (abundant). Wood diffuse porous. Vessels solitary and in short radial multiples. Tyloses common. Tangential diameter of vessel lumina 150 to 200 micras (medium). Vessel-ray pits larger than the intervessel pits. Simple perforation plate Axial parenchyma absent or extremely rare, non visible with magnifying glass (8x). Occasionally siliceous bodies in the axial parenchyma. 4 to 10 rays per mm (medium). Rays commonly 2 seriate. Silica bodies in the ray cells. Non-crystals in ray cells. Non-septate fibers. Fibers with simple to minutely bordered pits.

  • Wood Macro Photo Tangential Plane
  • Wood Micro Photo Of Transversal Section

Availability

Cites Status

Unrestricted

General Wood Description

Color

The sapwood is paler than the heartwood. The heartwood is grey or pink, it is clearly demarcated.

Grain

It has highly interlocked grain; special care is needed when drying because of frequent risks of distortion.

Texture

This species is usually reported to have a fine texture.

Luster

The wood surface is described as low in luster.

Natural Durability

Not durable; important risks of decay attacks at any processing step, from logs up to final products. It must receive preservative treatment. Resistant to termites attack.

Natural durability index (1= Very high durability, 7=Vey low durability)

5

Internal Growth Stresses

Residual stresses are reported to be absent.

Silica Content

Silica Content: Silica presence is reported. Amounts over 0.05% may affect wood processing. Silica Value: 0.17

Resistance To Impregnation

Nearly impossible to treat with a too much low penetration of the preservative substances.

Wood Physical Properties

Basic Density or Specific Gravity (O.D. weight/vol. green) (g/cm³)

0.72

Air-dry Density (Weight and volume at 12%MC) (g/cm³)

0.81

Total shrinkage Tangential (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)

9.4

Total shrinkage Radial (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)

6.1

Drying Defects

Ease of Drying: Mersawa air dries very slowly with slight seasoning defects. Boards of 25 mm thick take 7.5 months to air dry. Drying Defects: Cupping and bowing are recorded. Kiln Schedules: Kiln drying is slow but without degrade, although the core of logs of old trees tends to retain a high moisture content.

Recommended Dry Kiln Schedule

FR-8

Dimensional stability ratio (Total Tangential Shrinkage %/Total Radial Shrinkage %)

1.5

Wood Chemical Properties

Wood Mechanical Properties

Compression parallel to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)

671

Compression perpendicular to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)

92

Shear strength radial 12%MC (kgf/cm²)

116

Janka hardness (side) 12%MC (kgf)

813

Janka hardness (end grain) 12%MC (kgf)

887

Workability

Sawing

Sawing of this species requires powerful equipment.

Rotary Veneer Cutting

Not suitable for veneering.

Sliced Veneer

Not suitable for veneering.

Blunting Effect

Severe blunting effect; stellited blades for sawing and carbide tools for machining are recommended.

Machining

It needs powerful tools for processing. Possible difficulties caused by interlocked grain are reported.

Planing

Moderately easy; tools must be cautiously sharpened.

Moulding

Moderately easy; tools must be cautiously sharpened.

Turning

30

Boring

Moderately easy; tools must be cautiously sharpened.

Mortising

Moderately easy; tools must be cautiously sharpened.

Nailing

Pre-boring is necessary.

Gluing

Difficult to glue because of high density.

Sanding

Easy to perform; it gives good results.

Polishing

Can be polished without surface preparation.

Response To Hand Tools

Working with hand tools is difficult.

REFERENCED USES

End Uses Summary

HOUSING GENERAL, flooring, parquet, fittings, FURNITURE AND CABINETS, cabinets, PLYWOOD AND VENEER, TURNING, SPORTS, TOOLS, tool handles, agricultural tools, CONTAINERS, truck bodies, truck flooring, NAVAL CONSTRUCTION, boats

General Housing
  • 10 - Silica in Timbers
Flooring
  • 14 - Handbook of Hardwoods
Parquet
  • 15 - Empire Timbers
Fittings
  • 19 - Silica in Timbers
Furniture Cabinets
  • 21 - Tropical timbers of the world. Part III-Southeast Asian and Oceanian Species.
Cabinet
  • 24 - Empire Timbers
Panels, Veneers
  • 25 - Directory of Timber Trade Malaysia
Turning
  • 30 - Embassy of Honduras in Japan
Sports
  • 38 - Annual Review and Assessment of the World Timber Situation 1998-ITTO
Tools
  • 42 - Utilización Industrial de Nuevas Especies Forestales en el Perú.
Tool Handles
  • 43 - Maderas de Bolivia (Características y Usos de 55 Maderas Tropicales)
Agricultural Tools
  • 44 - Atlas of Peruvian Woods
Truck Body
  • 53 - Timbers of the New World
Truck Flooring
  • 54 - Bulletin of the Government Forest Experiment Station N.157: Identification of Tropical Woods
Shipbuilding
  • 55 - Tropical Timber Atlas of Latin America
Boats
  • 56 - Manual de Identificación de Especies Forestales de la Subregión Andina.

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