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ABURA/BAHIA (Hallea ciliata)

Trade Name

Abura/Bahia

Scientific Name

Hallea ciliata Aubrev. et Pellegr.

Family

RUBIACEAE

Common Names

Mboi (Sierra Leone); Elolom (Cameroon); Nzingu (Zambia); Bahia (France); Nzingu (Zaire); Nzingu (Uganda); Mvuku (Zaire); Mivuko (Angola); Vuku (Congo); Elelom nzam (Gabon); Elelon (Equatorial Guinea); Elolom Elolom (Cameroon); Abura (Nigeria); Subaha (Ghana); Bahia (Côte d`Ivoire)

Scientific Name Synonyms

Mitragyna ciliata Aubrev. & Pellegr.

Description Of The Tree

Botanical Description

The tree reaches a height of 30 m. The bole may be 20 m in length or more, usually free from buttresses, straight and clear. The trunk diameter attains 80 to 150 cm.

Natural Habitat

Hallea ciliata is a gregarious species found in freshwater swamps in rain forests, extending into coastal, semi-deciduous formations. Often reported in mixed stands.

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Wood Identification

Anatomic Description Of Wood

Wood diffuse porous. Occasionally vessels exclusively solitary (over 90%). Vestured pits. Vessels per mm2 more than 20 (very abundant). Simple perforation plates. Vessel-ray pits similar to intervessel pits in size and shape. Intervessel pits medium, 7 to 10 mi Apotracheal axial parenchyma diffuse and/or diffuse in aggregates. Non-crystals in axial parenchyma cells. 5 to 8 cells per parenchyma strand. Rays more than 10 per mm (abundant). Rays non-storied. Rays 1 to 4 seriate. Occasionally silica bodies in the ray cells. Heterogeneous rays and/or multiseriate heterogeneous rays. Non-septate fibers. Fibers with distinctly bordered pits.

  • Wood Macro Photo Radial Plane
  • Wood Micro Photo Of Transversal Section

Availability

Cites Status

Unrestricted

General Wood Description

Color

The heartwood is pink beige to pinkish brown, it is not clearly demarcated. The silver figure is fine.

COLOR INDEX (1=Black, 7=Light yellow,white)

5

Grain

Straight; grain has no particular influence on drying, machining and finishing qualities.

Texture

This species is usually reported to have a fine texture.

Luster

It is reported to be low in luster.

Natural Durability

Not durable; important risks of decay attacks at any processing step, from logs up to final products. It must receive preservative treatment. Sensible to termites attack. Heartwood is sensible to Lyctus attacks.

Natural durability index (1= Very high durability, 7=Vey low durability)

5

Internal Growth Stresses

Residual stresses are reported to be absent.

Silica Content

Silica Content: Negligible content of silica is reported. Amounts over 0.05% may affect wood processing. Silica Value: 0.04

Resistance To Impregnation

Moderately easy to treat with a partial penetration of the preservative products.

Wood Physical Properties

Basic Density or Specific Gravity (O.D. weight/vol. green) (g/cm³)

0.52

Air-dry Density (Weight and volume at 12%MC) (g/cm³)

0.57

Total shrinkage Tangential (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)

8.7

Total shrinkage Radial (Saturated to 0%MC) (%)

4.1

Drying Defects

Ease of Drying: Air drying is reported as fairly rapid. Boards of 13 mm and 38 mm thick take respectively 2.5 months and 3.5 months. Drying Defects: The wood seasons with negligible degrade except for fungal and insect attacks.

Recommended Dry Kiln Schedule

FR-3

Dimensional stability ratio (Total Tangential Shrinkage %/Total Radial Shrinkage %)

2.1

Wood Chemical Properties

Wood Mechanical Properties

Compression parallel to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)

459

Compression perpendicular to fiber 12%MC (kgf/cm²)

55

Shear strength radial 12%MC (kgf/cm²)

69

Janka hardness (side) 12%MC (kgf)

395

Janka hardness (end grain) 12%MC (kgf)

499

Workability

Sawing

It is easy to saw.

Rotary Veneer Cutting

Suitable for slicing, also suitable for peeling if treated.

Sliced Veneer

Suitable for slicing, also suitable for peeling if treated.

Blunting Effect

Severe blunting effect; stellited blades for sawing and carbide tools for machining are recommended.

Machining

Possible difficulties caused by interlocked grain are reported.

Planing

Easy; no particular problems.

Moulding

Moderately easy; tools must be cautiously sharpened.

Turning

30

Boring

Moderately easy; tools must be cautiously sharpened.

Mortising

Moderately easy; tools must be cautiously sharpened.

Nailing

No particular problem.

Gluing

Glues well if basic gluing technical rules are followed.

Sanding

Easy to perform; it gives good results.

Polishing

Can be polished without surface preparation.

Steam Bending

Steam bending is difficult.

Response To Hand Tools

No particular problems.

REFERENCED USES

End Uses Summary

HOUSING GENERAL, beams, joists, boards, frames, steps, panelling, fittings, FURNITURE AND CABINETS, luxury furniture, cabinets, PLYWOOD AND VENEER, faces, Decorative veneer, TURNING, ornaments, turned furniture, cutlery, lasts, OTHER AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, handicrafts, moldings

General Housing
  • 10 - Silica in Timbers
Beams
  • 11 - Prospect: The wood database
Joists
  • 12 - Tropical timbers of the world. Part I-Tropical American Species
Boards
  • 13 - Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods. Temperate and tropical. Section III. Latin American (Mexico, Central, and South America) Woods–Conventional Temperatures
Frames
  • 16 - Woods of the World
Steps
  • 17 - Tree Conservation Database
Paneling
  • 18 - W3TROPICOS Missouri Botanical Garden
Fittings
  • 19 - Silica in Timbers
Furniture Cabinets
  • 21 - Tropical timbers of the world. Part III-Southeast Asian and Oceanian Species.
Furniture, Luxury
  • 22 - Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods. Temperate and tropical. Section IV-Asian and Oceanian Woods
Cabinet
  • 24 - Empire Timbers
Panels, Veneers
  • 25 - Directory of Timber Trade Malaysia
Faces
  • 26 - Annual Review and Assessment of the World Timber Situation 1998-ITTO
Decorative veneer
  • 28 - Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forest of Fiji
Turning
  • 30 - Embassy of Honduras in Japan
Ornaments
  • 31 - Embassy of Colombia in Japan
Turned Articles
  • 32 - Embassy of Cote d`Ivoire in Japan
Knife Handles
  • 33 - Embassy of Gabon in Japan
Lasts
  • 34 - Embassy of Indonesia in Japan
Handcraft
  • 66 - Maderas latinoamericanas. VII. Caracteristicas anatomicas. propiedades fisicomecanicas, de secado, y tratabilidad de la madera juvenil de Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav. Oken.)
Molding
  • 79 - Padronização da Nomenclatura Comercial Brasileira das Madeiras Tropicais Amazônicas, Sugestão

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