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References

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  • ABC - Search Substitutes for globally traded temperate species - Coming soon.  Will be able to search  substitutes for: North America: Acer saccharum Marsh., Alnus rubra Bong, Carya ovata K. Koch, Fraxinus americana L., Juglans nigra L., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson, Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, Quercus rubra L., Quercus alba L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Picea abies (L.) Karst. European Union: Pinus nigra Arnold, Pinus pinaster Aiton, Pinus sylvestris L., Quercus robur L., Fagus sylvatica L. Other: Araucaria angustifolia O. Ktze, Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus radiata D. Don, Callitris glauca R. Br., Eucalyptus marginata Sm., Eucalyptus deglupta Blume.
  • ABC - Timber Availability. Abundance Data for Natural Forests - Reliable inventory data of standing timber by species for natural tropical forests is scarce.  It can vary widely between regions and forest types. When such data is available, this website uses, for comparison purposes, the standing volume of timber per hectare of a species in trees larger than 40 cm. diameter at breast height (d.b.h.). The 40 cm d.b.h. was chosen only as a suitable comparative volume across different species. (In some tropical countries forest regulations still prevent trees under 50 cm d.b.h from being legally harvested). Low Abundance = Under 2 m3/ha; Medium Abundance = 2-5 m3/ha; High Abundance = Over 5 m3/ha.
  • ABC - Contributing missing photos or information - Donations from individuals and institutions are greatly appreciated and will be acknowledeged. Evidence of proper species identification and of permission to use the photos and information is essential. Kindly contact the person listed in your user group to receive detailed instructions. Thank you.
  • ABC of Website - Authors of Species Photos - Many individuals and institutions have contributed their great photos and valuable time to this website. To them go our gratitude and appreciation. Authors Species photos
  • ABC - Bending Strength MOR, Technology Keys - "The strength of wood samples in air dry condition (12% MC) is used for sorting and comparing species into the ranges  shown below. These ranges or Technology Keys were used by the original database. The Modulus Of Rupture in bending (MOR) is a rough estimate of the ultimate bending strength of timber based on defect-free samples  of 20x20 mm sized sample of the transverse section of a piece of timber. However, in practice the modulus of rupture and other strength properties of a piece of construction timber are influenced by many factors such as wood defects, moisture content, load position and duration, among other. So, this is NOT a design value. It is expressed in kilograms force per square centimeter (kgf/cm2). Low: Less than 580 (kgf/cm2) Medium: 581 up to 685 Fairly high:  686 up to 808 High: 809 up to 956 Very high: 957 up to 1160 Extremely high: Over 1161 (kgf/cm2) "
  • ABC of Website - Janka Hardness, Techology Keys - "The Janka hardness of wood samples in air dry condition (12%M.C.), is used for species searches and comparisons. Refers to the load required to embed a steel ball half inch in diameter to half its thickness on the side grain or the end grain. The sorting ranges used by the original database are used.  Values are based on results  of Janka side grain tests expressed in kgf as follows. (test protocol and machines explained elsewhereHardness / Janka) Very low: Less than 305 kgf Medium: 305 to 610 Fairly high: 610 to 915 High: 915 to 1220 Very high: Over 1220"
  • ABC of WEBSITE - Replacement Search Guide - 1.  Ability to  do    Searches to Replace globally traded temperate forest timber species will be added in due course (see list in "temperate species"). 2. Tropical timber species  are selected for further analysis as replacement candidates, using the following comparison criteria: Must be within + or - 15%  of  Air Dry Density ("Weight") AND Side hardness Janka,  AND Moisture Movement (Total Tangential Shrinkage  %) of the species. being replaced AND, Must be within one rank (+ or - ) for both Index of Natural Durability  and Index of Color (both are only approximate measures).
  • ABC OF WEBSITE - Reference Section Tips - 1. Try our central search facility in the REFERENCE SECTION  of  HOME. 2. The English language version lists all the reference items (¨Resources¨) available  in  all languages. 3. Most classical reference publications are shown  untranslated,  in their original language. 4. Our system currently lists each Resource to a single user group. For efficiency use the central search facility. Enter keywords in any language. 5. Many topics of general interest have been linked to the Sustainable Forest Producers user group. 6. To quickly see an updated list of all completed ITTO projects in several key topics, please search for ITTO Projects.  
  • ALL KILN DRYING PROGRAMS - For British programs click: KD_British, For Grupo Andino programs click: KD_JUNAC, For USA programs click: KD_USA, For Japanese programs click: KD_Japan, For French programs click: KD_French,
  • ABC - All Credits for Website Images and Photos - To view credits for Species photos: Species   To view credits for Website imagery: Imagery
  • ABC - Authors Species Photos - Their have been many individuals and institutions that have contributed their great photography and time to this site. We express our gratitude and appreciation. View Species  Photo Credits
  • ABC - Photo Credits - Main Imagery - Many individuals and entities have contributed important photography and time to this site. To all of them we express our deep gratitude and appreciation. View Main Imagery Photo Credits
  • ABC - Moisture Movement (Tangential Shrinkage,Total) - "Moisture movement¨ is the popular term used to describe the  dimensional change response of a given species for a given change in its  moisture content.  In this website it is represented by Total Tangential Shrinkage, defined as  the dimensional change of the tangential face of a piece of wood  when it dries  from the green or ¨saturated¨ condition (27-30% Moisture Content)  to the oven-dry condition (0% MC) . It is expressed as  a % of the green dimension. Used in this website as one of the criteria for selecting replacement species. (Not to be confused with Normal  shrinkage which is the linearly prorated, smaller shrinkage, measured from the saturated  state to the air dry condition of 12% MC.) Total Tangential shrinkage of  7-11% is Medium Total Tangential shrinkage greater than 11% is  Large. Total Tangential shrinkage  smaller than 7% is considered Small.       
  • ABC - Air Dry Density ("Weight" of wood), Technology keys - Density referred to the ratio of air dry weight of wood to its air dry volume, both measured at 12 % of moisture content. This density in air dry condition, is  loosely called sometimes "weight of wood".  The five categories of air dry density (with both weight and voume measured at MC12%) of the original database are used as "technology keys" for species searches. They are: Light = Less than 0.4 g/cm3; Medium-light = From 0.4 g/cm3 up to 0.55 g/cm3; Medium-heavy =  From 0.55 g/cm3 up to 0.75 g/cm3; Heavy = Over 0.75 g/cm3 and up to 0.95 g/cm3; Very heavy = Over 0.95 g/cm3. For converting to English units please search for "Conversion factors".

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  • DRYING - Drykiln Operators Manual USDA FPL - The USDA FPL AH-188 is a classical publication in English edited in 1991 by W. Simpson.  Covers wood physics of water movement,  kiln design and operation, process controls, moisture content tracking, lumber sizes and allowances, schedule types, energy consumption, among many other topics. Offered by permission and courtesy of the USDA Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI, USA.  
    http://itto.git.grav-dev.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/USDA.FPL_.AH188.Rev1991DryKilnOperatorsManual.pdf
    Download PDF (18 MB)
  • DURABILITY - Natural Durability Groundtests - Reports of ongoing ground tests for European and imported woods in Norway. Bibliography Item 615. Download the PDF
  • DURABILITY - Natural Durability Checklist - Natural durability of wood.  A worldwide checklist of species by Oregon State University.  Bibliography Item 616. Download the PDF
  • DENSITY - Wood Density Variation-Juvenile Wood - Many tree species have lower density, maybe juvenile wood, in the center part of log  and decreasing density along the height of the stem. Well illustrated by applied research in South Africa plantations by Oxford University. Download PDF
    http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/users/millsr/isbes/ODLF/TFP43.pdf
  • DRYING - Lumber Drying Schedules, USDA -     The complete list of dry kiln schedules developed or tested by USDA Forest Products Laboratory is included in the classic 1988 publication in English  by S. Boone et al.  Includes species from Americas, Asia and Africa. Bibliography items separated by regions  Nrs 13, 22, 317.  
    http://itto.git.grav-dev.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/USDA.FPL_.AH188.Rev1991DryKilnOperatorsManual.pdf
    Download USDA FPL Publication GTR 57 by S.Boone (746 Kb).
  • DRYING - Lumber Drying Schedules - USDA FPL Dry Kiln Schedules for worldwide Woods.
    Download the PDF
  • DRYING - Lumber Drying Groups - Provides criteria for grouping species for drying.
    http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/fplrn/fplrn263.pdf
  • DRYING - Lumber - Lumber Kiln Drying Basics.Iastate.edu.forestry.publications.f-328
    http://www.extension.iastate.edu/forestry/publications/pdf_files/f-328.pdf
  • DRYING - ITTO Wood Drying - Visit the main ITTO site to learn more.
    http://www.itto.int/project_search/?proid=&keyword=wood+drying&submit=&donor=&status=COMPLETED&areasofwork=&prolevel2=
  • DRYING - Green Wood - Wood before drying, directly after harvesting. It also refers to freshly cut woods which have not undergone any treatment. The moisture content in green wood varies with the species and the season.
  • DRYING - Weight Stacks of Wood - To reduce warping, weighting on a stack of wood, between drying or stacking time.
  • DRYING - Moisture Content - The weight of water expressed as a percentage of the oven-dry weight.
  • DRYING - Fiber Saturation Point (FSP) - The point at which there is no more free water in cell cavity, but the cell walls are still saturated with absorbed water. Approximately occurs at Moisture Content = 28% but varies with species.
  • DRYING - Sap Stain Defects - Staining in sapwood due to fungi attack.
  • DRYING - Water Pocket Defects - Spots of high moisture content remaining in a dried piece of wood.
  • DRYING - Mild Kiln Schedule - Softly/mild accelerated schedule, to prevent a risk of defect occurrence, need long time.
  • DRYING - Severe Kiln Schedule - Severe time acceleratedschedule, high risk of defect occurrence, need short time.
  • DRYING - JUNAC Kiln Schedule - Schedules proposed for South American wood species by the JUNAC (Andean Pact).
    http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/fplrn/fplrn263.pdf
  • DRYING - U.K. Kiln Schedule - Schedules from the Handbook of Hardwoods (United Kingdom)
    Download the UK Kiln Schedule
  • DRYING - U.S. Kiln Schedule - Schedules from the book Tropical Timbers of the World (Forest Service, United States of America). For more information please download the PDF below.
    Download the PDF
  • DRYING - Japan Kiln Schedule - Schedules from Forest Experiment Station in Japan.
    Download the Japan Kiln Schedule
  • DRYING - French Kiln Schedules - These are only the lumber dry kiln schedules from French sources which were recomended by the original ITTO Database of 2002.  A wider and updated set of schedules are available from  Tropix by CIRAD in France.
  • DRYING - Kiln Schedule - Processing schedule in a dry kiln. Steps of increasing severity in temperature, relative humidity, ventilation cycles and air circulation are applied for a certain timber species and thickness as the load of wood  loses its moisture.  Step changes of dry bulb (DB) temperature and relative humidity (RH) can be performed manually, at set time intervals or automatically, according to  feedback measurements of moisture content in wood samples.
  • DRYING - O.D. - Oven-Dry
  • DRYING - Madera Anhidra - Muestra de madera secada en horno ventilado a  101 a   105 °C (215 to 220 °F) hasta llegar a peso constante ó anhidro (ASTM 4442-07).  Oven-dry, en inglés.
  • DRYING - MC 12% - Moisture content of 12%  in realtion to the oven-dry basis.
  • DRYING - Recondition - Midway or at the end of kiln drying, a steaming-technique used to equalize drying conditions throughout a load of wood.
  • DENSITY - Tree Density Variation - Many tree species have lower density in the  center part of log, maybe juvenile wood, and density variation along the height of the stem.
    http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/users/millsr/isbes/ODLF/TFP43.pdf
  • DRYING - Volumetric Shrinkage - It is the total dimensional variation of wood from green condition to oven-dry condition. It is measured on wood or estimated as an addition of the radial and tangential shrinkage (expressed as  % of green dimension).
  • DRYING - Radial Shrinkage - It is the dimensional variation in the radial direction of wood from green condition to oven dry condition (expresed as a % of the green dimension).
  • DRYING - Equilibrium Moisture Content - Is the moisture content (MC%)  which wood from a certain species will tend to equalize at over time for given combination of air temperature  and air relative humidity.
  • DRYING - Kiln Drying - Drying process to reduce the moisture content of wood by using a kiln in which all drying parameters can be controlled.
  • DRYING - Artificial Drying - Drying process in  which drying factors such as temperature, relative humidity and air velocity, are under control.
  • DRYING - Seasoning - Drying of lumber and logs , taking place in an open air condition or a shed but not in a kiln.
  • DRYING - Air-drying - Drying in open air sheds  where drying factors such as temperature, relative humidity and air velocity cannot  be controlled.  Depending on the local climate, species, size and stacking, final moisture contents of  8-15% can be attained after several weeks or months.
  • DRYING - Normal Shrinkage - Dimension loss from  saturated or "green" condition to 12% MC  as a % of the green dimension.
  • DRYING - Total Shrinkage - Dimension loss from  saturated or "green" condition to 0% MC (oven-dry condition)  as a % of the green dimension.
  • DENSITY - Definition Wood Density - Density is accepted as a valid and reasonable basis for estimating the suitability of timber species for various uses. The  density measured for a given piece of wood can vary  significantly depending of the moisture content it had when the the weight was measured and when the volume was measured. For professional use, both of these moisture contents must always be explicitly stated together with the wood density value.
  • DENSITY - Basic Density, Basic Specific Gravity of Wood - Density based on the oven dry weight and the saturated or "green" volume. A theoretical construct, it is the lowest possible density value for a given species and the most accurate basis of comparison between species.  Practical for estimating  MC% of  air seasoned wood samples above or close to the fiber saturation point (27-30% MC) by weighing.  Sometimes called "basic specific gravity of wood".
  • DENSITY - Green - Density based on both the weight and the volume measured in the saturated or "green" condition.
  • DENSITY - Oven-dry density Definition - Density as the ratio of the oven-dry weight over the oven-dry volume.
  • DRYING - Contracción Total - Contracción Total  es la pérdida de dimensión desde estado saturado o " verde" hasta CH12%, como % de la dimensión verde.
  • DRYING - CH 12% - Contenido de Humedad de 12% (Como % del peso anhidro)
  • DRYING - Contenido de Humedad de Equilibrio - Contenido de humedad (CH%) al cual tiende la madera de una especie determinada para una combinación dada de temperatura y de humedad relativa del aire ambiente.
  • DRYING - Defects - Collapse - Cell wall collapse occurring in some species when drying above fiber saturation point.  In some species, collapse results in severe deformation of the affected piece of wood.
  • DRYING - Wet and Dry Bulb Thermometer - A set of two thermometers used in dry kilns. The bulb of the wet bulb thermometer is wrapped in a wet wicker and indicates a lower temperature than the dry bulb thermometer when its water evaporates faster. A larger drop in the  temperature of the wet bulb  thermometer indicates a lower relative humidity of the circulating air. The Differential of temperatures between dry bulb and wet bulb (depression), is sometimes used  in dry kiln schedules to represent the relative humidity of the air.
  • DRYING - Twist - A kind of warp after drying.
  • DRYING - Crook - A kind of warp after drying.
  • DRYING - Bow - A kind of warp after drying.
  • DRYING - Defects - Cup - A kind of deformation after drying; most common with wider boards which are flat sawn.
  • DRYING - Honeycomb - A kind of defect at drying consisting of internal checks or voids.
  • DRYING - Manual de Secado de Maderas, Grupo Andino - "Manual de Secado de Maderas", Grupo Andino
    Bajar Documento
  • DRYING - Oven-Dry Condition Procedure - Wood sample dried in a ventilated oven at 101 to 105 °C (215 to 220 °F) for 48 hrs or until constant weight reached at 0% M.C. (ASTM 4442-07) . Learn more about the practical aspects of oven-drying wood samples as applied to biomass, in the PDF below.   Download PDF
    http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/ForestBusinesses/documents/BiomassMoistureContent.pdf
    Download PDF
  • DRYING - Lumber Drying - An excellent short description of kiln drying in the Iowa State  Univ. Forestry Extension Note F-328, 1999. Learn more through the PDF link below.
    http://www.extension.iastate.edu/forestry/publications/pdf_files/f-328.pdf
  • DENSITY - Density Variation - Many tree species have lower density in the  center part of log, maybe juvenile wood, and density variation along the height of the stem.
    http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/users/millsr/isbes/ODLF/TFP43.pdf

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  • GRADES and SIZES - Plywood Grades -
    http://www.apawood.org/resource-library
  • GRADES and SIZES - Lumber Grades -
    http://www.ahec.org/hardwoods/pdfs/IllustratedGradingGuide.pdf
  • GRADES and SIZES - Clasificación Tableros Madera Estructural -
  • GRADES and SIZES - Clasificación Madera Estructural -
  • GENERAL - LUS Definition. Lesser Used Species - Lesser Used Species. Tropical natural forests are characterized by their enormous diversity.  They have many different species per  unit area and relatively small volumes compared to natural temperate forests. Many species can be considered as LUS. Several factors determine this situation, among them are the lack of enough technical and market information. While the term Lesser Known Species (LKS) is now rarely used, several tropical timber  species are still lacking basic property information. For example, this website is still missing wood and botanical photos and data for many tropical species. This database allows the user to search alternative tropical species with properties similar to the popular commercially used timber species.  It also shows users where LUS can be sourced from certified forests.
  • GENERAL - Included Phloem - Inserted bark inside the woody tissue of stem.
  • GENERAL - Radial Face, Quarter-Sawn Lumber, Vertical grain - When the face of a board intersects annual gowth rings at 90 deg. angle. The shrinkage rate of radial faces is substantially lower than for tangential faces.  ¨Quarter sawn lumber¨ or " vertical grain" lumber (as opposed to "flat sawn" lumber) is often sought after for millwork, joinery, stair steps and  for species like eucalyptus or oak that are prone to drying defects.
  • GENERAL - Tangential - Face of board is tangential to annual gowth rings. "Flat-sawn lumber"
  • GENERAL - Cara Radial - Cara radial de la madera es perpendicular a los anillos de crecimiento anual. Madera muestra  veta "cuarteada" o lineas paralelas en sentido longitudinal de la fibra, mas visibles en especies no tropicales.
  • GENERAL - Cara Tangencial - Cara de la pieza de madera es tangencial a los anillos de crecimiento. Madera con veta  "floreada" presenta ojivas en sentido longitudinal de la fibra, mas visibles en especies no tropicales.
  • GENERAL - Interlocked Grain - A wood grain in which the fibers incline in one direction in a number of annual rings and in a reverse direction in succeeding rings. Causing a distortion in sawn-board. In Japanese market a log which has a interlocked grain is sawn in quarter boards (radial plane boards).
  • GRADES and SIZES - Oak Lumber Grades EU - Learn more about oak lumber grades through the below link.
    http://www.fordaq.com/fordaq/html/quality_oak_En.htm
  • GRADES and SIZES - Hardwood Flooring Grades - View photos of hardwood flooring grades through the link below.
    http://www.nwfa.org/nofma-grade-photos.aspx
  • GRADES and SIZES - Hardwood Lumber Grades USA - Learn more about hardwood lumber grades in the USA through the PDF link below.
    http://www.nhla.com/assets/1603/rules_card9.pdf
  • GRADES and SIZES - Flooring Grades - Learn more about flooring grades through the link below.
    http://www.nwfa.org/nofma-grade-photos.aspx
  • GRADES and SIZES - Decorative Veneer Grades - Learn more about decorative veneer grades through the PDF link below.
    http://www.hardwoodweb.com/pdf/catalogue_plywoodveneers.pdf
  • GENETICS - Tree Improvement - Visit the Camcore site for more information on Tree Improvement or download the Tropical Forestry PDF below to learn more.
    http://www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/130643/Tropical-Forestry-Papers.pdf
  • GENETICS - Tree Breeding - View more on tree domestication and breeding by clicking the link below.
    http://www.camcore.org/tree-domestication/
  • GENETICS - Mejoramiento Genético -
    http://www.camcore.org/tree-domestication/
  • GENETICS - Mejoramiento de Arboles -
    http://www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/130643/Tropical-Forestry-Papers.pdf
  • GENETICS - Gene Conservation -
    http://www.camcore.org/gene-conservation/

H

  • HARDNESS - Brinell Hardness - The load required to embed a steel ball (10 mm in diameter) to 0.32 mm depth, in causing a depression area of 10 mm2. Commonly used in the European Union  and for harder materials. Here for side grain at 12% M.C.   Expressed as [N/mm²]. Values not convertible to Janka hardness. Learn more through the PDF link below.
    http://www.kahrs.com/globalassets/us/doc-msds-test/kahrs_brinell_hardness.pdf
  • HARDNESS - Janka Hardness Definition, Test - The load required to embed a steel ball (11.284 mm in diameter) to half its diameter, causing a depression of 100 mm2. Janka end hardness is determined on transverse sections, while Janka side hardness is the average of tests on radial and tangential surface.  (See also Brinnel hardness). Learn more through the link below.
    http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/fplrn/fpl_rn303.pdf
  • HARDNESS - Dureza Janka - Learn more about Janka hardness through the PDF link below.
    http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/fplrn/fpl_rn303.pdf
  • HARDNESS - Dureza BRINELL - Learn more about wood hardness through the PDF link below.
    http://www.kahrs.com/globalassets/us/doc-msds-test/kahrs_brinell_hardness.pdf
  • HARVESTING - Release of Stress - Tree felling and crosscutting of stems into logs will release longitudinal growth stresses near the cut, so that logs split at the new ends. The end splits become larger during log storage of a day, to extend in severe cases from bark to bark, and at times over the entire length. Among the numerous methods to prevent end splitting, some are worth the effort for expensive logs. When logs are sawn, growth stress release causes the lumber to warp and to end split again. Lumber sawn from bent flitches varies in thickness.
  • HARVESTING - Relaxation Methods - Steaming or smoking and some mechanical cutting (i.e. girdling) methods are proposed to decreasing growth (residual) stresses in a stem or log, to overcoming severe distortion or splitting after cutting. Untreated Terminalia sp. log has severe end split.Treatment, befor crosscutting makes a groove around the log, like girdling, and crosscutting results in  no end split.
  • HARVESTING - Log Split - Splits of over 60 cm (2 ft.) along the long axis of a log due to high level of growth stresses.
  • HARVESTING - ITTO Reduced Impact Logging Projects - Get information from the ITTO main site about completed reduced impact logging projects by ITTO.   Get
    http://www.itto.int/project_search/?proid=&keyword=reduced+impact+logging&submit=&donor=&status=COMPLETED&areasofwork=&prolevel2=
  • HARVESTING - Girdling - Cutting a girdle around the stem to kill the tree by interrupting the circulation of water and nutrients. Decreasing the moisture content and residual stresses inside the stem, resulting in the floater log and preventing severe splits during harvesting. Applied 2 years before cutting in teak of Indonesia.
  • HARVESTING - End Split - End split within 60 cm (2 ft.) or so of a log's end cross section due to high level of growth stresses.

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  • PROTECTION OF WOOD - Painting, Staining Wood Exteriors - Practical publication in English that explains how the different types of wood  surfaces are generated and  how each can be best finished to protect it  from the weather. Finishing Wood Exteriors. Selection, application and maintenance. Cassens, D. USDA, AH Nr.647, May 1986, 56 pp.    
    Finishing-Wood-Exteriors.-Selection-application-maintenance.-Agric.-Handbook-647.-USDA-FS-Cassens-D.-May-1986-56pp.pdf
    Download PDF (2 MB)
  • PROTECTION OF WOOD - Wood Preservation -
    http://www.awpa.com/references/specifier.asp
  • PROTECTION OF WOOD - ITTO Wood Preservation - Visit the main ITTO site to learn more.
    http://www.itto.int/project_search/?proid=&keyword=wood+preservation&submit=&donor=&status=COMPLETED&areasofwork=&prolevel2=
  • POLES - Utility Poles - Download the PDF to learn more about Utility Poles.
    http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/pdf1997/wolfe97b.pdf
  • PROPERTIES, WOOD - Reaction Wood - Wood with more or less distinctive anatomical characters found typically in parts of leaning or crooked stems and in branches and tending to restore the original position if this has been disturbed. It includes tension wood in dicotyledons and compression wood in conifers. (International Assoc. of Wood Anatomists, 1962 quoted in ¨The biology of reaction wood¨ by Gardiner B. et al., 2014).
  • PULPING - Pulping Properties - Access the forestry paper through the download.
    Access Forestry Paper
  • PROTECTION OF WOOD - Preservation, Wood - A number of different (chemical) preservatives and processes (also known as timber treatment, lumber treatment or pressure treatment) that can extend the life of wood, timber, woodstructures or engineered wood.
  • PROPERTIES, WOOD - Juvenile Wood, Teak - Download the publication from the main ITTO International website.
    http://www.itto.int/files/itto_project_db_input/2778/Technical/PPD-68-03-R2-I-Teak-Handbook.pdf
  • PROPERTIES, WOOD - Juvenile Wood, Acacia - Download the publication from the main ITTO International website.
    http://www.itto.int/files/user/pdf/publications/PD%20306%2004/pd306-04-3%20rev1(I)%20e.pdf
  • PROPERTIES, WOOD - Heart Rot - Rot at central part of standing tree. Depends on tree species, age and other factors.
  • PROPERTIES, WOOD - Growth Stresses - Growth stresses develop in each stem and in each branch of trees. They have their origin in growing wood cells, which tend to contract in fibre direction, and to expand transversely against restraining forces of adjoining older wood cells. One-sided longitudinal growth stresses help trees obtain optimum crown and branch orientation, as we know from reaction wood, in which growth stresses are extreme. The stresses, which can be measured in several ways, also prevent mechanical failures of various kinds in the tree's vital sapwood, but they cause compression failures and heart checks in the core of big trees.
  • PROPERTIES, WOOD - Brittle Heart - The defective core of a log. The cell wall of the wood fiber has minute failures and low density in the center part of standing tree. Depending on timber species it may be caused by big growth-stresses and juvenile wood. There are visible compression failures in wood and minute failures at cell wall (micro scopic scale).
  • PROTECTION OF WOOD - Blue Stain - A common form of bluish discoloration generally of sapwood caused by various fungi.
  • PROPERTIES, WOOD - Amount of Stress - The amount of stress in new wood tissue at the periphery of the stem seems to be determined by genetic as well as environmental factors. Trees which receive light from the same direction throughout their life have no incentive to reorient, so that stresses are weak in multi-storeyed stands. By contrast, trees in heavily thinned or heavily pruned stands develop strong growth stresses in order to achieve improved orientation. Girdling and defoliation appear to weaken the stresses, but generally, growth rates and stresses are not related. In standing dead trees and in stored roundwood the stresses diminish as time passes, although the mechanism of stress decrease remains unclear.

R

  • RETAIL BUYERS - Product Standards -
    Download the PDF
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Wood Product Standards - Learn more about in the PDF below.
    Download the PDF
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Value-added Products - Wood products where their design, final performance and cost competitiveness matter more than the underlying species. Examples include engineered floors, laminated beams, I-beams, veneered furniture, furniture made with substitute species finished to look like mahogany, walnut, oak, etc.
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Sustainable Forestry Initiative - Active in North America. Certified by PEFC. View the fact sheet on green building.
    http://www.spi-ind.com/document_library/SFI_Green_Building_Fact_Sheet.pdf
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - FSC-Certified Sustainably Managed Forests - Forestry Stewardship Council (FSC).  The main independent international body of voluntary certification for sustainably managed  natural production forests in the tropics.  The link explains in English how FSC works.  This website promotes FSC certified forest producers that have elected to participate by locating their forests in the digital distribution map of the lesser used species they offer.
    https://us.fsc.org/market.196.htm
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Responsible Buying - Learn more about consumer responsible buying.
    http://www.pefc.org/forest-issues/consume-responsibly
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Productores Forestales Certificados - Productores forestales que manejan bosques certificados por FSC ó PEFC y que participan en este sitio web.
    https://us.fsc.org/market.196.htm
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Furniture Standards - Learn more about furniture standards by downloading the PDF below.
    Download the PDF
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - FSC - Forestry Stewardship Council. Active globally.
    http://info.fsc.org/
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Forest Preservation - Maintaining undisturbed natural areas which have been little touched by humans.
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Forest Conservation - Wise use of the forest and associated natural resources for this and future generations.
    http://www.itto.int/
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Certified Forestry - Learn more about ITTO certified forestry by downloading the PDF below.
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Certified Forest Producers - Producers certified by FSC or PEFC and that participate in this website.
    http://info.fsc.org/
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Certificación Forestal - Certificación Forestal en Bolivia. Ve el video
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AmF3O-P1N44
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Buying Responsibly - Learn more about buying wood products more responsibly through the below link.
    https://us.fsc.org/market.196.htm
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - PEFC - Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes
    http://www.pefc.org/
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - LUS - Lesser Used Species
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Environmental Standards -
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - Conservation of Forests - Wise use of the forest and associated natural resources for this and future generations.
    http://itto.int
  • RESPONSIBLE CONSUMER - CITES - CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.  Entered in force in 1975 and as of December of  2014 had been signed by 180 countries. ITTO actively supports CITES work.
    http://cites.org/eng/disc/what.php

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  • VIRTUAL LIBRARY - English Language - Initial  entries: For  Publications by ITTO Projects search in Reference Section. Enter keyword:  ITTO Projects Search the USDA Forest Products Laboratory Publications:  http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/search/index.php    

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